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SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

Article References

CARDOSO, Adalberto. Slavery and capitalist sociality: an essay on social inertia.Translated byDavid Allan Rodgers. Novos estud. - CEBRAP [online]. 2008, vol.4Selected edition, pp. 0-0. ISSN 0101-3300.

    3 Costa, Emilia V. da. Da senzala à Colônia. 2nd ed. São Paulo: CiênciasHumanas, 1982 [1966]; Da Monarquia à República: momentos decisivos. 7th ed. São Paulo: Ed. Unesp, 1999; Conrad,Robert. Children of God's fire: a documentary history of Brazilian slavery.Pennsylvania: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1994; Eisenberg, Peter L. The sugar industry of Pernambuco:modernization without change,1840-1919. Berkeley: University ofCalifornia Press, 1974; [ Links ]

    Homens esquecidos: escravos e trabalhadores livres no Brasil. Campinas: Ed. Unicamp, 1989; [ Links ]

    Klein, Herbert S. "The trade in Africanslaves to Rio de Janeiro, 1795-1811." The Journal of African History, vol. 10,no. 4, 1969, pp. 533-49; Russel-Wood,A. J. R. "Autoridades ambivalentes: o Estado do Brasil e a contribuição africana para ‘a boa ordem na República.'" In: Silva, Maria Beatriz N. da (ed.). Brasil: colonização e escravidão. Rio de Janeiro: Nova Fronteira, 1999, pp. 105-23; Escravos e libertos no Brasil colonial. Rio de Janeiro: Civilização Brasileira, 2005; [ Links ]

    Schwartz, Stuart B. Slaves,peasants and rebels: reconsidering Brazilianslavery. Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1992; [ Links ]

    Segredos internos: engenhos e escravos na sociedade colonial. São Paulo: Cia. das Letras, 1995. [ Links ]

    5 This question, analyzed in the seminal book of Celso Furtado, Formação econômica do Brasil (Rio de Janeiro: Fundo de Cultura, 1959), [ Links ]

    7 "In the Northeast, abolition took place without major readjustments and the former slaves were incorporated into the different sectors of the region's rural workforce. Their fate was subsequently conditioned by the region's economic and social immobility (Hasenbalg, Carlos. Discriminação e desigualdades raciais no Brasil. Belo Horizonte: Ed. UFMG, 2005 [1979], p. 164). [ Links ]

    8 Fragoso, "O império escravista e a república dos plantadores." op. cit. [ Links ]

    12 Cf. Karasch, Mary C. A vida dos escravos no Rio de Janeiro – 1808-1850. São Paulo: Cia. das Letras, 2000 [1987] [ Links ]

    ; Chalhoub, Sidney. Visões da liberdade: uma história das últimas décadas da escravidão na Corte. São Paulo: Cia. das Letras, 1990; [ Links ]

    17 Cf., respectively, ibid., p. 166; Eisenberg, The sugar industry of Pernambuco, op. cit. [ Links ]

    ; Moura, Denise A. S. de. Saindo das sombras: homens livres no declínio do escravismo. Campinas: CMU, 1998. [ Links ]

    19 Cf., for example, Kowarick, Lucio. Trabalho e vadiagem: a origem do trabalho livre no Brasil. São Paulo: Brasiliense, 1987; [ Links ]

    27 "The [Brazilian] population grew dizzyingly during the 18th and 19th centuries, the lands were appropriated by capital and the growing pauperization forced people to relocate continuously" (Moura, op. cit., p. 27). During the same period, southern Brazil, for instance, served as a magnet for the vast non-white free or freed population coming from other regions, who settled in rural areas to produce subsistence goods far from the Colony's general economic dynamic (cf. Lima, Carlos A. M. "Sertanejos e pessoas republicanas: livres de cor em Castro e Guaratuba – 1801-35." Estudos Afro-Asiáticos, vol. 24, no. 2, 2002, pp. 317-44). Maria Sylvia de Carvalho Franco (Homens livres na ordem escravocrata. São Paulo: Ática, 1976) shows how nomadism was typical to the poor populations under the slavocrat system, [ Links ]

    a decisive aspect in terms of weakening social ties. See too Huggins, Martha K. From slavery to vagrancy in Brazil. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1985. [ Links ]

    28 See Costa, Da Monarquia à República, op. cit., pp. 310-11; [ Links ]

    30 In the felicitous expression of José de Souza Martins (O cativeiro da terra. São Paulo: Ciências Humanas, 1979), [ Links ]

    31 "How could men who planted enough to survive, who lived at their own devices and luck, be forced to submit, in exchange for scanty wages, to the arduous work demanded on the plantations? For them, working as wage-earners on the big estates meant assuming the condition of slaves" (Costa, Da Monarquia à República, op. cit., p. 311). [ Links ]

    32 Cf., among others, Huggins, op. cit.; Holloway, Thomas H. Polícia no Rio de Janeiro: repressão e resistência numa cidade do século XIX. Rio de Janeiro: Ed. FGV, 1997; [ Links ]

    Vellasco, Ivan de A. As seduções da ordem: violência, criminalidade e administração da justiça – Minas Gerais, século 19. Bauru: Edusc, 2004; [ Links ]

    37 On the process of transforming the opaque other into a monstrous ‘alien' whose identity was thereby inaccessible, see Kearney, Richard. Strangers, gods and monsters. London/New York: Routledge, 2003. Lilia M. Schwarcz (Retrato em branco e negro: jornais, escravos e cidadãos em São Paulo no final do século XIX. São Paulo: Cia. das Letras, 1987) provides an ingenious argument on the late 19th century press's construction of the ‘Brazilian negro' as ‘violent and degenerate' and later as ‘strange' and ‘foreign. [ Links ]

    40 A view shared by the Jesuit jurist Alonso de Sandoval, the priest Antônio Vieira, the ‘humanist' Maurício de Nassau and by many others in the 17th century (cf. Alencastro, Luiz Felipe de. O trato dos viventes: formação do Brasil no Atlântico Sul. São Paulo: Cia. das Letras,2000, especially chapter 5). Even radical abolitionists like Joaquim Nabuco (O abolicionismo. Rio de Janeiro: Nova Fronteira, 1999, pp. 142-45) saw the African as a blemish left on the face of Brazilian nationality by the Portuguese. [ Links ]

    42 On the view of the national worker by landowners from various regions as incapable, lazy, indolent, and therefore unsuited to work, see Eisenberg. Homens esquecidos, op. cit.; The sugar industry of Pernambuco, op. cit., pp. 194-98. [ Links ]

    43 Something similar occurred in France in the first half of the 19th century where industrial work was seen, for example, as "corrupting of the mental faculties," as declared in the Dictionnaire d'économie politique [1891-92] by Léon Say & Joseph Chailley, cited by Castel (op. cit., p. 288) amid other evaluations of the working class (‘barbarians,' ‘vile multitude'...) which, the latter author argues, amounted to an "anti-working class racism widespread [among] the 19th century bourgeoisie." Consequently the workers movement asserted from its outset "the dignity of manual labour and its social pre-eminence as the true creator of wealth" as decisive aspects in the construction of class identity (ibid., p. 443; also see Thompson, Edward P. A formação da classe operária inglesa, vol. 2. Rio de Janeiro: Paz e Terra, 1987). [ Links ]

    The same phenomenon occurred in Brazil at the beginning of the 20th century, as shown, among others, by Evaristo de Moraes Filho (O problema do sindicato único no Brasil. São Paulo: AlfaÔmega, 1952), [ Links ]

    Everardo Dias (História das lutas sociais no Brasil. São Paulo: Edaglit, 1962), [ Links ]

    Boris Fausto (Trabalho urbano e conflito social. São Paulo: Difel, 1977), [ Links ]

    45 Cf., respectively, Eisenberg, The sugar industry of Pernambuco, op. cit.; Dean, op. cit., and Azevedo, op. cit.; Carvalho, José Murilo de. A construção da ordem: a elite política imperial. Brasília: Ed. UnB,1980. [ Links ]

    49 On the São Paulo case, see Fausto, Boris. A criminalidade em São Paulo, 1880-1924. São Paulo: Brasiliense, 1984. Citing the description by a police chief of a young woman of 20 years, accused of stealing in 1892 – "She was a black woman of average height, frizzy hair, large eyes, good teeth, thick lips" – therefore using a terminology typical of the slave market, the author asks: "A simple vestige of an old habit still existing in the years immediately after Abolition and on the way to vanishing? Nothing suggests this" (p.54). Also see Pinto, Maria Inez M. B. Cotidiano e sobrevivência: a vida do trabalhador pobre na cidade de São Paulo – 1890-1914. São Paulo: Edusp, 1994. [ Links ]

    On the Bahian case, see Fraga Filho, Walter. Encruzilhadas da liberdade: estórias de escravos e libertos na Bahia – 1870-1910. Campinas: Ed. Unicamp, 2006. [ Links ]

    52 Cf. Tocqueville, Alexis de. Lembranças de 1848: as jornadas revolucionárias em Paris. São Paulo: Cia. das Letras, 1991. [ Links ]

    53 Cf. Reis, João José. Rebelião escrava no Brasil: a história do Levante dos Malês em 1835. São Paulo: Cia. das Letras, 2003. [ Links ]

    56 Examples can be found in Dean, op. cit.; Azevedo, op. cit.; Schwartz, Segredos internos, op. cit.; Carvalho, José Murilo de. Os bestializados: o Rio de Janeiro e a república que não foi. São Paulo: Cia. das Letras, 1987; [ Links ]

    Machado, Maria Helena. O plano e o pânico: os movimentos sociais na década da Abolição. Rio de Janeiro/São Paulo: Ed. UFRJ/Edusp, 1994. [ Links ]

    57 Fernandes, op. cit., pp. 56-57. [ Links ]

    58 Carvalho, Os bestializados, op. cit., p. 113. [ Links ]

    59 Cf. ibid., p. 115. Also see Sevcenko, Nicolau. A Revolta da Vacina: mentes insanas em corpos rebeldes. São Paulo: Brasiliense, 1984; [ Links ]

    Pinheiro, Paulo Sérgio. Estratégia da ilusão: a revolução mundial e o Brasil, 1922-35. São Paulo: Cia. das Letras, 1991; [ Links ]

    Bretas, Marcos Luiz. A guerra das ruas: povo e polícia na cidade do Rio de Janeiro. Rio de Janeiro: Arquivo Nacional, 1997; [ Links ]

    61 On this point it is notable that throughout almost the entire First Republic when anarchists, socialists, strikers, feminists, union leaders and the like were imprisoned they were indiscriminately recorded as offenders and, therefore, as public enemies (cf. Fausto. A criminalidade em São Paulo, op. cit., p. 34). [ Links ]

    66 On Freyre's study, see Araújo, Ricardo B. de. Guerra e paz: Casa-grande & senzala e a obra de Gilberto Freyre nos anos 30. Rio de Janeiro: Ed. 34, 2005. [ Links ]

    67 Freyre, op. cit., p.52. [ Links ]

    72 Cf., among others, Fausto, Trabalho urbano e conflito social, op. cit.; Pinheiro, Estratégia da ilusão, op. cit.; Negro, Antonio Luigi. Linhas de montagem. São Paulo: Boitempo, 2004. [ Links ]

    73 Motta, Rodrigo P. S. Em guarda contra o perigo vermelho: o anticomunismo no Brasil – 1917-64. São Paulo: Perspectiva, 2002. [ Links ]

    74 Candido, Antonio. Os parceiros do Rio Bonito. Rio de Janeiro: JoséOlympio, 1964. [ Links ]

    79 For a dense analysis of the construction of the taste and aspirations of workers, shaped by living in close proximity with need, see Bourdieu, Pierre. La distinction. Paris: Minuit, 1979. [ Links ]