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Article References

PAUTASSI, Laura C.. Is there equality in inequality? Scope and limits of affirmative actions.Translated byBarney Whiteoak. Sur [online]. 2007, vol.3Selected edition, pp. 0-0. ISSN 1806-6445.

    1. R. Castel, La Metamorfosis de la Cuestión Social. Una Crónica del Salariado, Buenos Aires, Paidós, 1997. [ Links ]

    2. R. Dworkin, Taking Rights Seriously, London, Duckworth & Co, 1977. [ Links ]

    3. Public law refers to the relations between branches of the State or between these branches and individuals, while private law governs the relationships between individuals. In this division, the acceptations public and private carry different meanings than those attributed them when the focus is gender. Hereinafter in this paper, this is the meaning I shall employ; with "private" designating the space and the relations inside the home and "public" representing the space, processes and relations outside the home. L. Pautassi, E. Faur & N. Gherardi, "Legislación Laboral en Seis Países Latinoamericanos. Límites y Omisiones para una Mayor Equidad", Serie Mujer y Desarrollo, n° 56, Santiago de Chile, ECLAC, 2004. [ Links ]

    6 Some of the points analyzed here have already been presented in Laura Pautassi, "¿Bailarinas en la Oscuridad? Seguridad Social en América Latina el Marco de la Equidad de Género", a paper presented at the Thirty-Eighth Meeting of the Presiding Officers of the Regional Conference on Women in Latin America and the Caribbean, Mar del Plata, 7-8 September 2005. [ Links ]

    9. Conventions 100, 111, 156 and 171. Nevertheless, this evolution was not entirely linear and for many years, from 1919 to 1981, various approaches to female work, including various legally protected interests, overlapped: women as weak individuals requiring special protection, women as mothers, maternity, equality and, finally, protection of maternity/paternity. Flavia Marco, "Consecuencias Económicas de la Discriminación Laboral por Género", Masters thesis in Economic Law, Santiago do Chile, University of Chile, Law Faculty, Graduate School, 1999. [ Links ]

    15. It is worth pointing out that the amount of women active in the urban job market between 1990 and 2004 rose from 37.9% to 51%. This is a sizable increase, although still far behind the figure for men, which in 2004 was 78%. Latin America presents the widest unemployment gap between men and women: 3.4% in 2003. Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC), Gender Statistics, Women and Development Unit, 2006, available on the internet, at the link <> or <>, accessed on January 16, 2007. [ Links ]

    16. An analysis of the structure of labor costs by gender conducted in five countries (Argentina, Chile, Brazil, Mexico and Uruguay) reliably confirms that it is indeed a myth that hiring women implies greater labor costs. L. Abramo & R. Todazo, Cuestionando un Mito: Costos Laborales de Hombres y Mujeres en América Latina, International Labour Organization, Lima, 2002. [ Links ]

    17. Claus Offe notes that none of these questions have been established in a straightforward and unquestionable manner, hence the ambiguous and obscure nature of social security. Claus Offe, "Un Diseño no Productivista para Políticas Sociales", in Rubén Lo Vuolo (comp.), Contra la Exclusión. La Propuesta del Ingreso Ciudadano, Buenos Aires, CIEPP/Miño y Dávila, 1995. [ Links ]

    21. See on this subject Carmelo Mesa Lago, "Desarrollo Social, Reforma del Estado y de la Seguridad Social en el Umbral del Siglo XXI", Serie Políticas Sociales, nº 36, Santiago de Chile, ECLAC, January 2000. [ Links ]

    22. F. Ewald, L'Etat Providence, Paris, Bernard Grasset, 1986, p. 540. [ Links ]

    23. Nancy Folbre, The Invisible Heart. Economics and Family Values, New York, The New Press, 2001. [ Links ]

    24. Here, we once again take up the topic developed in Laura Pautassi, "Legislación Previsional y Equidad de Género en América Latina", Serie Mujer y Desarrollo, n° 42, Santiago de Chile, ECLAC, 2002. [ Links ]

    25. See, on this subject, Flavia Marco, Los Sistemas de Pensiones en América Latina, Un Análisis de Género, Santiago de Chile, ECLAC, 2004. [ Links ]

    28. For an analysis of the gap between rights and the development perspective, see Victor Abramovich, "Una Aproximación al Enfoque de Derechos en las Estrategias y Políticas de Desarrollo", ECLAC review, n° 88, Santiago de Chile, ECLAC, April 2006. [ Links ]

    29. Mario Paganini, Financiamiento de lo Inestable, Santa Fe, mimeo, 2002 [ Links ]

    31. Fidel Ferreras Alonso, Adaptar la Seguridad Social a las Nuevas Situaciones Sociales: El Ejemplo de Alemania, Madrid, mimeo, June 2001. [ Links ]

    32. Among the most common standards, those recognized as minimum content of rights are those of progressiveness and non-regressiveness; of non-discrimination; of information production and policy formulation; of participation of sectors involved in the designing of public policies and of access to technology. Centro de Estudios Legales y Sociales (CELS-Argentina), Plan Jefes y Jefas. ¿Derecho Social o Beneficio sin Derechos?, Colección Investigación y Análisis 1, Buenos Aires, CELS, 2004. [ Links ]