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SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

Article References

BAXI, Upendra. Sur [online]. 2007, vol.3Selected edition, pp. 0-0. ISSN 1806-6445.

    1. G. Agamben, Homo Sacer: Sovereign Power and Bare Life, Stanford, Stanford University Press, 1995. [ Links ]

    See also G. Aderni, "Legal Intimations: Michael Oakeshott and the Rule of Law", Wisconsin Law Review, 1993, p. 838; [ Links ]

    U. Baxi, "The Gujarat Catastrophe: Notes on Reading Politics as Democidal Rape Culture" in Kalpana Kababiran (ed.), The Violence of Normal Times: Essays on Women's Lived Realities, New Delhi, Women Unlimited in association with Kali for Women, 2005, pp. 332-384; [ Links ]

    U. Baxi "Postcolonial Legality" in Henry Schwartz & Sangeeta Roy (eds.), A Companion to Postcolonial Studies, Oxford, Blackwell, 2001, pp. 540-555; [ Links ]

    B. Fine, Democracy and the Rule of Law: Liberal Ideals and Marxist Critiques, London, Pluto Press, 1984; [ Links ]

    M. Galanter, Competing Equalities, Delhi, Oxford, 1984; [ Links ]

    M. Hidyatuallah, The Fifth and Sixth Schedules of the Constitution of India, Gauhati, Ashok Publishing House, 1979; [ Links ]

    C. Schmitt, Political Theology: Four Chapters on the Concept of Sovereignty, Cambridge, The MIT Press, George Schwab trs, 1985; [ Links ]

    A. Sen, Development as Freedom, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1999 [ Links ]

    and J. Stone, The Social Dimensions of Law and Justice, Sydney, Maitland, 1966, pp. 797-99.
    [ Links ]

    2. See, for this distinction variously elaborated, L. Fuller, Morality of Law, New Haven, Yale University Press, 1964; [ Links ]

    N. McCormick, "Natural Law and the Separation of Law and Morals" in Robert P. George (ed.) Oxford, Natural Law Theory: Contemporary Essays, Clarendon Press, 1992, pp. 105- 133; [ Links ]

    J. Finnis, Natural Law and Natural Rights, Oxford, Oxford Clarendon Press, 1980 [ Links ]

    and G. Q. Walker, The Rule of Law: Foundation of Constitutional Democracy, Melbourne University Press, 1988.
    [ Links ]

    3. A valuable comparative beginning is made by a group of scholars: see, R. Peernbohm, Asian Discourses on the Rule of Law: Theories and Implementation of Rule of Law in Twelve Asian Countries, France and U.S., London, London and Routledge, 2004. [ Links ]

    4. See R. Young, Postcolonialism: An Introduction, Oxford, Blackwell, 2001 [ Links ]

    and U. Baxi, "The Colonialist Heritage" in Pierre Legrand and Roderick Munday (eds.), Comparative Legal Studies: Traditions and Transitions, Cambridge University Press, 2003, pp. 6-58. [ Links ]

    5. E. P. Thompson, Whigs and Hunters: The Origins of Black Act, London, Allen Lane, 1975. [ Links ]

    6. U. Baxi, The Future of Human Rights, Delhi, Oxford University Press, 2nd ed., 2006. [ Links ]

    7. Differently presented, for example in Braithwaite and Dathos (2000), Chibundo (1999) and B. S. Chimni, "Cooption and Resistance: Two Faces of Global Administrative Law", New York Journal of International Law and Politics, vol.37, Number 4/Summer 5, 2005, pp.799-827. [ Links ]

    9. See U. Baxi, "The War on Terror and the 'War of Terror', Nomadic Multitudes, Aggressive Incumbents  & the 'New International Law'", Osgoode Hall Law Journal, v. 43, number 1 & 2, 2005, pp.1-36. [ Links ]

    See also M. L. Satterthwaite, "Rendered Meaningless: Extraordinary Rendition and the Rule of Law", New York University Public Law and Legal Theory Working Papers, Paper 43, 2006; [ Links ]

    Idem, "Torture by Proxy: International and Domestic Law Applicable to 'Extraordinary Rendition'", New York, ABCBY and NYU School of Law, 2004.
    [ Links ]

    10. U. Baxi, The Future of Human Rights, Delhi, Oxford University Press, 2nd ed., 2006. [ Links ]

    11. But seeR. Peernbohm, "Let One Hundred Flowers Bloom, One Hundred School Contend: Debating Rule of Law in China", Michigan Journal of International Law, v. 23, 2002, p. 471. [ Links ]

    12. L. Althusser, Montesquieu, Rousseau, Marx: Politics and History, London, Verso, Ben Brewster trs, 1982. [ Links ]

    13. Indeed, the separation of powers invests the executive with sovereign discretion in the realms of macro and micro development planning, arms production (inclusive of weapons of mass destruction), decisions to wage many types of (covert as well as overt) war, or management of insurgent violence. Our ROL talk unsurprisingly, but still unhappily, more or less, ends where the militarized state (the "secret" State, to evoke E. P. Thompson, Writing by the Candlelight, London, The Merlin Press, 1989 [ Links ]

    14. J. Raz, "The Rule of Law and its Virtue", Law Quarterly Review, v. 93, 1977, p. 208. [ Links ]

    15. J. Rawls, The Law of Peoples, Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1999; [ Links ]

    Idem, Political Liberalism, New York, Columbia University Press, 1993. [ Links ]

    See also J. Habermas, etween Facts and Norms: Contributions to a Discourse Theory of Law and Democracy, Cambridge, The MIT Press, William Rehg trs, 1996.
    [ Links ]

    16. See J. Morgan Kouseer, Colorblind Injustice: Minority Voting Rights and the Undoing of the Second Reconstruction, Chapel Hill, University of North Carolina Press, 1999. [ Links ]

    17. I invite your attention to such diverse phenomena as May 1968, the campus protest in the United States against the Vietnam War, massive peoples demonstrations against the Uruguay round and the WTO, the Tiananmen Square, the struggles against apartheid regimes in the United States and South Africa, against perversions of the East and Central European socialist legality and more recently the protests against the invasion of Iraq and the various 'velvet' and 'orange' revolutions. For befittingly amorphous notions of 'multitudes' see, A. Negri, Insurgencies: Constituent Power and the Modern State, Minnesota, University of Minnesota Press, Muarizia Boscagli trs, 1999; [ Links ]

    A. Negri & M. Hardt, Empire, Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 2000; [ Links ]

    and in a rather dissimilar genre see P. Virno, A Grammar of Multitude For An Analysis of Contemporary Forms of Life, Los Angeles and New York, SEMIOTEXT{E}, Isabella Bertoletti, James Cascaito, Andréa Casson trs., 2004.
    [ Links ]

    18. G. Austin, The Indian Constitution: The Cornerstone of Nation, Delhi, Oxford University Press, 1964; [ Links ]

    Idem, Working a Democratic Constitution —The Indian Experience, Delhi, Oxford University Press, 1999, pp. 540-555. [ Links ]

    U. Baxi, "The Colonialist Heritage" in Pierre Legrand and Roderick Munday (eds.), Comparative Legal Studies: Traditions and Transitions, Cambridge University Press, 2003, pp. 6-58.
    [ Links ]

    21. The Indian Supreme Court has thus constructed a magnificent edifice of preventive detention jurisprudence subjecting acts of detention to strict scrutiny, while sustaining legislative constitutionality of such measures. But see, U. K. Singh, The State, Democracy, and Anti-terror Laws In India, New Delhi, Sage, 2007. [ Links ]

    22. See, for more recent perspectives, R. Samaddar, The Politics of Autonomy, New Delhi, Sage, 2005. [ Links ]

    27. U. Baxi, "Justice of Human Rights in Indian Constitutionalism: Preliminary Notes" in Thomas Pantham and V. R. Mehta (ed.), Modern Indian Political Thought, Delhi, Sage Publications, 2006, pp. 263-284. [ Links ]

    28. See S. P. Sathe, Judicial Activism in India, Delhi, Oxford University Press, 2002. [ Links ]

    U. Baxi, The Indian Supreme Court and Politics Lucknow, Delhi, Eastern Book Company, 1980 [ Links ]

    and Idem, Courage, Craft, and Contention: The Indian Supreme Court in mid-Eightie,s Bombay, N. M. Tripathi, 1985.
    [ Links ]

    29. C. Raj Kumar, "International Human Right Perspective on the Right to Education: Integration of Human Rights and Human Development in the Indian Constitution" in 12 Tulane International and Comparative Law 237, 2004. [ Links ]

    31. U. Baxi, "The War on Terror and the 'War of Terror'", Nomadic Multitudes, Aggressive Incumbents & the 'New International Law'", Osgoode Hall Law Journal, v. 43, number 1& 2, 2005, pp. 1-36. [ Links ]

    32. M. Oakeshott, On Human Conduct, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1975, pp. 1-31. [ Links ]