SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

Article References

UNDURRAGA SCHULER, Verônica. Affronts washed with blood: honor, masculinity and sword duels in 18th century Chile.Translated byCristina Labarca Cortés. Historia (Santiago) [online]. 2008, vol.4Selected edition, pp. 0-0. ISSN 0717-7194.

    2 About this, the anthropologist Peristiany, one of the referents in the study of honor in Mediterranean societies, has pointed out that honor and dishonor "are the reflection of the personality of society and the mirror of social ideals". J. G. Peristiany (ed.), El concepto de honor en la sociedad mediterrnea, Barcelona, Labor, 1968, 12. [ Links ]

    By representation we understand the systems of perceptions and judgment than individuals or the communities of interpretation understand and construct of the social world. Under the concept of practices we will be referring to the experiences and ways how people materialize what honor meant for them. Roger Chartier, El mundo como representacin. Estudios sobre historia cultural, Barcelona, Gedisa, 1992. [ Links ]

    For some critical reflections about the notion of representation, see Carlo Ginzburg, Ojazos de madera. Nueve reflexiones sobre la distancia, Barcelona, Pennsula, 2000, 85-88. [ Links ]

    3 About the transversal and polysemous character of collonial chilean honor see Vernica Undurraga, "Honores transversales, honores polismicos en la sociedad chilena del siglo XVIII", in A. Araya, A. Candina and C. Cussen (eds.), Del nuevo al viejo mundo: mentalidades y representaciones desde Amrica, Santiago, Fondo de Publicaciones Americanistas y Facultad de Humanidades de la Universidad de Chile, 2008, 53-65. [ Links ]

    4 By "symbolic struggles" we understand, following Pierre Bourdieu, the disputes for the appropriation of the distinctive signs that are the basis of the cultural capital of a society. These are "struggles in which what is at stake is everything that, in the social world, is about beliefs, credibility or incredibility, perception and appreciation, knowledge and recognition, name, renown, prestige, honor, glory, authority, everything that constitutes the symbolic power as a recognized power". Pierre Bourdieu, La distincin. Criterio y bases sociales del gusto, Madrid, Taurus, 2000, 248. [ Links ]

    5 By elite we refer to a select and reduced group of people that had social, economic and political prerogatives in a certain social, economic and political context. See Jacques A. Barbier, "Elite and Cadres in Bourbon Chile", Hispanic American Historical Review (from now on HAHR), 52 (3), 1972, 416-435. [ Links ]

    We take the notion of discourse proposed by Foucault, as a system of possibility of knowledge. As such, it is not only a way of expression, but a disposition of experiences and knowledge. Michel Foucault, El orden del discurso, Barcelona, Tusquets, 2002; [ Links ]

    Michel Foucault, Arqueologa del saber, Buenos Aires, Siglo XXI, 2003. [ Links ]

    7 Frdrique Langue, "Les identits fractales: honneur et couleur dans la socit vnzulienne du XVIIIe sicle", Caravelle, N 65, 1995, 25 (translation is ours). [ Links ]

    8 The social use of identities is referred especially to those derived of origin and color of the colonial actors. Berta Ares Queija, "Mestizos en hbito de indios: estrategias transgresoras o identidades difusas?", in R. M. Loureiro y Serge Gruzinski (eds.), Passar as fronteiras. Il coloquio internacional sobre mediadores culturais, sculos XV a XVIII, Lagos, Centro de Estudios Gil Eanes, 1999, 133-146; [ Links ]

    Bernard Lavall, Amor y opresin en los Andes centrales, Lima, IEP / IFEA / URP, 85-136. [ Links ]

    When we state the existence of a social use of honor in 18th century Chile, we not only postulate the possibility of negotiation of native identities but of all those linked to the faces of honor, especially in middle and lower groups. The synonymy between honor and good conduct, or between honor and virility, were some of the mechanisms used by poor Spaniards, Indians and castes to construct alternative representations of honor. With this, the importance of traditional criteria, like lineage, was eluded or at least minimized. See Vernica Undurraga, "El honor no es ms que la buena opinin: aproximacin al honor a partir de la categora de lo pblico en el Chile de 1792 a 1822", Bicentenario. Revista de Historia de Chile y Amrica, Vol. 4, N 2, 2005, Santiago, 17-35. [ Links ]

    10 The notion of American colonial society as a society of domination, with all the range of nuances that this notion can have, has been studied by several authors. For Chile we can mention, among others, the works of Sergio Villalobos, Historia del pueblo chile-no, Tomo IV, Santiago, Editorial Universitaria, 1999, 211-294. From the point of view of social disciplining, Leonardo Len has shown the mechanisms of control of the population by the elite of the illustration. See his works, "Elite y bajo pueblo durante el perodo colonial. La guerra contra las pulperas en Santiago de Chile", Monografas de Cuadernos de Historia N 1, Historia de las mentalidades. Homenaje a Georges Duby, Santiago, Departamento de Ciencias Histricas, Universidad de Chile, 2000, 93-114; [ Links ]

    "La construccin del orden social oligrquico en Chile colonial: la creacin del Cuerpo de Dragones, 1758", Estudios Coloniales I, Santiago, Universidad Andrs Bello, 2000, 183-195; [ Links ]

    "Reglamentando la vida cotidiana en Chile colonial, 1760-1768", Valles. Revista de estudios regionales, La Ligua, Ao 4, N 4, 1998, 47-75. [ Links ]

    11 The strategies of adaptation and manipulation in the social world show the operability of a "specific rationality" in the actions of colonial actors. The term "specific rationality" comes from Giovanni Levi who applies it to the European peasant world of the Old Regime. Giovanni Levi, La herencia inmaterial. La historia de un exorcista piamonts del siglo XVII, Madrid, Nerea, 1990, 11 y 12. [ Links ]

    12 Lyman L. Johnson and Sonya Lipsett-Rivera, The faces of honor in Colonial Latin America. Sex, shame and violence, Albuquerque, University of New Mexico Press, 1998; [ Links ]

    Mara Eugenia Chaves, Honor y libertad. Discursos y recursos en la estrategia de libertad de una mujer esclava (Guayaquil a fines del perodo colonial), Goteborg, Departamento de Historia/Instituto Iberoamericano de la Universidad de Goteborg, 2001; [ Links ]

    Sarah Chambers, From Subjects to Citizens. Honor, Gender and Politics in Arequipa, Peru, 1780-1854, University Park PA, Pennsylvania State University Press, 1999; [ Links ]

    Frdrique Langue, "Les identits fractales", op. cit., 23-37; Frdrique Langue, Aristcratas, honor y subversin en la Venezuela del siglo XVIII, Caracas, Biblioteca de la Academia Nacional de la Historia, Serie Fuentes para la Historia de Venezuela, Vol. 252, 2000 [ Links ]

    13 Diego Barros Arana, Historia general de Chile, tomo VII, Santiago, Universitaria-DIBAM, 2000, 308. [ Links ]

    The description of individuals of mixed race as vicious, with propensity to drinking and gambling, certainly did not contribute to search for fundaments of honor in the middle or lower groups. Benjamn Vicua Mackenna, Historia crtica y social de Santiago. 1541-1868, Santiago, Nascimento, 1924, Tomo II, 144 y 532. [ Links ]

    14 Domingo Amuntegui Solar, Mayorazgos y ttulos de Castilla, 3 vols., Santiago, Imprenta, Litografa I Encuadernacin Barcelona, 1901; [ Links ]

    Juan Mujica, Linajes espaoles. Nobleza colonial de Chile, 2 vols., Santiago, Zamorano y Capern, 1927; [ Links ]

    Luis Thayer Ojeda, Familias chilenas, Santiago, Guillermo Miranda Editor, 1905; [ Links ]

    Juan Luis Espejo, Nobiliario de la Capitana General de Chile, Santiago, Andrs Bello, 1967; [ Links ]

    Julio Retamal Favereau y otros, Familias fundadoras de Chile, 3 vols., Santiago, Universidad Catlica de Chile, 1992, 2000, 2003. [ Links ]

    Also, the several articles by Luis Lira Montt endorse the conception of honor as a principle associated to the elite. His interest for the study of nobility in Indias, as a social institution regulated by the Spanish crown, stems from a historical-legal and institutional point of view. Some of his works are: "Benemritos del Reino de Chile repertorio del siglo XVII", Boletn de la Academia Chilena de la Historia (en adelante BAChH), N 105, 1995, 51-74; [ Links ]

    "El fuero nobiliario en Indias", BAChH, N 89, 19751976, 45-78; [ Links ]

    "La fundacin de mayorazgos en Indias", BAChH, N 102, 1991-1992, 349-386. [ Links ]

    15 Jaime Eyzaguirre, Fisonoma histrica de Chile, Santiago, Ed. del Pacfico, 1958, 15-17, 21-23. [ Links ]

    16 About the preoccupations of enriched merchants with social prestige see Mario Gngora, Encomenderos y estancieros. Estudios acerca de la constitucin social aristocrtica de Chile despus de la Conquista 1580-1660, Santiago, Universitaria, 1970, 80-87. In his analysis of social urban stratification in colonial Chile, the same author refers to the expectative of honor the mixed race had and their efforts to obtain it through the military ranks in the 18th century. Though these ideas were not systematically developed in his writings, they constituted refreshing pints of view that obligated to center the attention of facets that gave color and mobility to the apparently quiet and grey colonial siesta. Mario Gngora, "Urban social stratification in colonial Chile", HAHR, 55 (3), august 1975, 440. [ Links ]

    About the prestige that the promotion ladders of urban militias gave to castes in the 18th century in Chile, see Hugo Contreras, "Las milicias de pardos y morenos libres de Santiago de Chile en el siglo XVIII, 1760-1800", Cuadernos de Historia, N 25, Santiago, 2006, 93-117. [ Links ]

    20 In the reality of colonial Chile, the existence of codes of honor different from those of the elite has remained unnoticed for historiography up until a few years ago, and there is still no systematic study that – dialoguing with documentary registers – shows the diversity of its representations and practices, an issue we are currently working on for our doctoral thesis. Up to the moment, the only works exclusively destined to analyze honor in Chilean colonial society, besides those previously mentioned of our own authorship, have been "El concepto de honor en Chile colonial" and "Mujeres de Chilln luchan por su honra", by Retamal vila. In the first, the analysis is centered on the fundaments of power and social prestige of the aristocrats of the 16th and 17th centuries, recording a change in the "concept of honor" for the 18th century derived from the penetration of "new people" in the nucleus of the elite. Likewise, the author accepts the possibility that this notion "went through" the integrants of the "emerging middle group" and even some Indians, especially caciques. In the second article, the importance of female sexual purity is addressed in the conformation of the Hispanic Creole honor. See Julio Retamal vila, "El concepto de honor en Chile colonial", Estudios Coloniales II, Universidad Andrs Bello, Santiago, 2002, 41-56; [ Links ]

    "Mujeres de Chilln luchan por su honra", Estudios Coloniales III, Universidad Andrs Bello, Santiago, 2004, 113-127. [ Links ]

    21 Frdrique Langue has proponed this way of access to the American colonial past, based on the parameters of the 1990s European "new social history". See her work "Les identits fractales", op. cit., 24. For a critical analysis of the contributions and weaknesses of the work directed by Bernard Lepetit, that crystallizes the preoccupations of this "new social history", see the review by Abel Ignacio Lpez, "La historiografa francesa de los aos noventa. Bernard Lepetit (director). Les formes de l'experience. Une autre histoire sociale. Paris, Albin Michel, 1995", [ Links ]

    in Anuario Colombiano de Historia Social y de la Cultura, Vol. 26, 1999, 373-386. [ Links ]

    The interest for the study of the social practices in the American colonial world has intended to reconsider, for example, the history of institutions, with the accent on the social actors and the adjustment of general norms to local peculiarities. For the legal sphere, see Juan Carlos Garavaglia and Jean-Frdric Schaub, Lois, Justice, Coutume. Amrique et Europe latines (16e-19e sicle), Paris, ditions de L'cole del Hautes tudes en Sciences Sociales, 2005. 23 See note 13. [ Links ]

    22 The lines of analysis of Mediterranean honor impelled by the anthropological interpretation have included topics like social position, spiritual kinship or relationships with godfathers, family, hospitality and sexuality. Some of these works are: J. G. Peristiany (ed.), El concepto de honor, op.cit.; Julian Pitt-Rivers, Antropologa del honor o poltica de los sexos. Ensayos de antropologa mediterrnea, Barcelona, Crtica,1979; [ Links ]

    Julian Pitt-Rivers and J. G. Peristiany (eds.), Honor y gracia, Alianza, Madrid, 1993; [ Links ]

    J. K. Campbell, Honnour, Family and Patronage: A Study of Institutions and Moral Values in a Greek Mountain Community, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1964; [ Links ]

    J. Davis, People of the Mediterranean. An essay in comparative social anthropology, Londres, Routhledge and Kegan Paul, 1977. [ Links ]

    25 For this perspective see Jos Antonio Maravall, Poder, honor y lites en el siglo XVII, Madrid, Siglo XXI, 1984. [ Links ]

    In turn, Weber's sociology endorses the connection between honor and "class situation". Max Weber, Economa y sociedad. Esbozo de sociologa comprensiva, Santaf de Bogot, F.C.E., 1997, 687-691. [ Links ]

    27 Already thirty years ago Carlo Ginzburg pointed out the need to reconsider the relationship between popular culture and culture of the elite, avoiding a paternalism that makes the former be a sole reproducer of the ideas of the latter. Though this prejudice has been avoided, replacing the study of the culture produced by the popular groups to the problem of the culture imposed to them, the most attractive solution has been to show circularity between the levels of culture. Next to this, the notion of "popular culture" has been amply problematic, as it gives a false impression of homogeneity and expresses a reductionism cultural division in two levels, thus forgetting plurality of thought, behavior and the specific modalities of appropriation of cultural meanings. Carlo Ginzburg, El queso y los gusanos. El cosmos segn un molinero del siglo XVI, Barcelona, Pennsula, 2001 (1 ed. 1976). [ Links ]

    About the role of cultural mediators, see Berta Ares Queija y Serge Gruzinski (coord.), Entre dos mundos. Fronteras culturales y agentes mediadores, Sevilla, Publicaciones de la Escuela de Estudios Hispano-Americanos de Sevilla, 1997. [ Links ]

    28 Frdrique Langue, "Les identits fractales", op.cit.; Serge Gruzinski, El pensamiento mestizo, Barcelona, Paids, 2000. [ Links ]

    29 To analyse the influence of Santiago inside the colonial economic system see the studies of Marcello Carmagnani, Los mecanimos de la vida econmica en una sociedad colonial. Chile, 1680-1830, Santiago, DIBAM, 2001 and Romano Ruggiero, [ Links ]

    Una economa colonial: Chile siglo XVIII, Buenos Aires, Eudeba, 1965. [ Links ]

    From the point of view of the mobility of men in search of work and social opportunities see the interesting article, revolutionary for the time, of Mario Gngora, "Vagabundaje y sociedad fronteriza en Chile siglos XVII-XIX)", en Estudios de historia de la ideas y de historia social, Valparaso, Ediciones Universitarias de Valparaso, 1980. [ Links ]

    30 McCaa, Robert, "Calidad, Class, and Marriage in Colonial Mexico: The Case of Parral, 1788-1790", HAHR, 64 (3), 1984, 477-501; [ Links ]

    Roland Anrup and Mara Eugenia Chaves, "La plebe en una sociedad de todos los colores. La construccin e un imaginario social y poltico en la colonia tarda en Cartagena y Guayaquil", Caravelle. Cahiers du monde hispanique et luso-bresilien, N 84, 2005, 93-126. [ Links ]

    31 Just like historiography, our sources show the networks the Basques established from the peninsula with their friends and relatives in Chile, an essential step for their quick social insertion and promising economic bonanza. See, for example, Archivo Nacional Fondo Real Audiencia (from now on A.N.R.A.) Vol. 3205, Pieza 1, 35 Fjs., Santiago, 1794. Don Benito Aspeita Yaez asks for permission to marry doa Constanza Ferrer. In this file one can see the friendship between the parents of Aspeita and don Manuel de Salas, who felt the moral obligation to act as the father of the newly arrived Basque, advising him on his marriage plans. See also Trinidad Zaldvar, Mara Jos Vial and Francisca Rengifo, Los vascos en Chile. 1680-1820, Santiago, Los Andes, 1998, 36-40. [ Links ]

    32 About the spatial mobility of the laborers, see the works of Gabriel Salazar, Labradores, peones y proletarios. Formacin y crisis de la sociedad popular chilena del siglo XIX, Santiago, Lom Ediciones, 2000; [ Links ]

    "Ser nio huacho en la Historia de Chile (Siglo XIX)", Proposiciones. Chile, Historia y Bajo Pueblo, N 19, Santiago, 1990, 55-83. [ Links ]

    The link between loitering and the laborers-farmboys has been studied by Alejandra Araya in Ociosos, vagabundos y malentretenidos en Chile colonial, Santiago, Dibam-Lom Ediciones, 1999, 67-80. [ Links ]

    33 Armando de Ramn, Santiago de Chile (1541-1990). Historia de una sociedad urbana, Santiago, Editorial Sudamericana, 2000; [ Links ]

    "Santiago de Chile: 1650-1700", en Historia, N 12, Instituto de Historia, Pontificia Universidad Catlica de Chile, 1974-1975, 93-104. [ Links ]

    35 The Diccionario de Autoridades, derives "paisanaje", of "paisano". The latter refers to "someone who is from a same country, province or place as another or others. It is formed from the name Pas". Real Academia, Diccionario de la lengua castellana, en que se explica el verdadero sentido de las voces, su naturaleza y calidad, con las phrases o modos de hablar, los proverbios o refranes, y otras cosas convenientes al uso de la lengua, Imprenta de la Real Academia Espaola por los herederos de Francisco del Hierro, Madrid, tomo V, 1737, 80. [ Links ]

    36 Historiography has amply referred to the problem of ethnic identities, particularly the relationship between the categories derived from mixed races and the "society of castes" and the social structure of the colonial American world. In general terms, we can point out that the initial impact of the statements of Magnus Mrner that established equivalence between "race" and social hierarchies have been questioned from different angles. The criticisms on the nomenclature used, like "race" or "ethnia", do not only express semantic problems, but they pretend to show the ambiguity of cultural identities and the inconveniences of circumventing the tight links between those categories and the mechanisms of domination used by Hispanics. Some examples: Magnus Mrner, La mezcla de razas en la historia de Amrica latina, Buenos Aires, Paids, 1969; [ Links ]

    Berta Ares Queija, "Mestizos en hbito de indios", op. cit.; Roland Anrup and Mara Eugenia Chaves, "La plebe", op. cit.; Robert H. Jackson, "Race/Caste and the Creation and Meaning of Identity in Colonial Spanish America", Revista de Indias, Vol. LV, N 203, 1995, 149-173; [ Links ]

    John K. Chance and William B. Taylor, "Estate and Class in a Colonial City: Oaxaca in 1792", Comparative Studies in Society and History, Vol. 19, N 4, 1977, 454-487; [ Links ]

    Carmen Bernand, "De lo tnico a lo popular: circulaciones, mezclas, rupturas", en Nuevo Mundo Mundos Nuevos, N 6, 2006, [ Links ]

    38 Jean-Pierre Blancpain, Francia y los franceses en Chile (1700-1980), Santiago, Hachette, 1987; [ Links ]

    Anbal Escobar V., Francia y la colonia francesa en Chile, Santiago, Imprenta y Litografa La Ilustracin, 1920; [ Links ]

    Fernando Campos Harriet, Veleros franceses en el Mar del Sur (1700-1800), Santiago, Zig-Zag, 1964. [ Links ]

    39 However there are several studies that refute the vision that the coming of the bourgeoisie diminished the preoccupation with honor, especially during the 19th century. See Sandra Gayol, "Honor Moderno: The significance of honor in fin-de-sicle Argentina", HAHR, 84 (3), 2004, 475-498; [ Links ]

    Sandra Gayol, Sociabilidad en Buenos Aires. Hombres, Honor y Cafs 1862-1910, Buenos Aires, Ediciones del Signo, 2000; [ Links ]

    Sarah Chambers, From Subjects to Citizens, op. cit.; Verena Martnez-Alier, Marriage, class and colour, op. cit.; Peter M. Beattie, "The House, the Street, and the Barracks: Reform and Honorable Masculine Social Space in Brazil, 1864-1945, HAHR, 76 (3), 1996, 439-473; [ Links ]

    Thomas W. Gallant, "Honor, Masculinity, and Ritual Knife Fighting in Nineteenth-Century Greece", HAHR, 105, (2), 2000, 359-382; [ Links ]

    Kenneth S. Greenberg, "The Nose, the Lie, and the Duel in the Antebellum South", The American Historical Review, Vol. 95, N 1, 1990, 57-74 [ Links ]

    40 About social contempt for the practice of doctors in colonial Chile, see Vicua Mackenna, Mdicos de antao, Buenos Aires, Editorial Francisco de Aguirre, 1974, 106-117. [ Links ]

    About this subject, we have an interesting legal process for slander filed by a doctor after a man insulted him degrading his profession. Just as he said, the other individual "with violent contempt and despise of my honor and profession he insulted me notoriously accusing me of being only a bleeder and not a physician". Consequently, he requests the aggressor to publicly deny his words for the "restoration of my honor and profession". Archivo Nacional, Fondo Criminal, Legajo 1, expediente 2, Foja 1, Dn Agustin Gastaldes contra Dn Francisco Prez por injurias, 1802, Sta Rosa del Huasco. We thank Emma de Ramn for the chance to review this documentation when it was in process of cataloguing. Gonzalo Vial has studied some of the prejudices about trades at the end of the colonial period. Gonzalo Vial, "Los prejuicios sociales en Chile, al terminar el siglo XVIII. (Notas para su estudio)", BAChH, 73, 1965, 14-29. [ Links ]

    "Ctedras y Tertulias": "En busca de honor en Chile colonial: re-significacin, categoras raciales y masculinidad", Archivo Nacional Histrico, 29 de agosto de 2006. [ Links ]

    41 About the ways of "private vengeance" in Spain and its domains from the 16th to the 18th century and the difficulties of the crown to eliminate this practice, see Francisco Toms y Valiente, El Derecho Penal de la Monarqua absoluta (Siglos XVI - XVII - XVIII), Madrid, Tecnos, 1969, 46-80. [ Links ]

    The policies of social control displayed under the aegis of illustrated despotism amply exceed the parameters of this investigation. For a general analysis of the Chilean case, see Jacques A. Barbier, Reform and Politics in Bourbon Chile, 1755-1796, Ottawa, University of Ottawa, 1980. [ Links ]

    An interesting line of analysis refers to the efforts of the illustrated elite to "order" public fun under the parameters of civilization/barbarism. Juan Pedro Viqueira Albn, Relajados o reprimidos? Diversiones pblicas y vida social en la ciudad de Mxico durante el Siglo de las Luces, Mxico, F.C.E., 2005. [ Links ]

    42 The concept of honor as a means of social disciplining has been one of the most studied aspects of the subject in historiography, especially in the perspectives of the history of gender. However, these interpretations evade the existence of a social use of honor, capable of turning this notion in a legitimizing element of transgressions of order and official moral. For a summary and discussion of this perspective. see Steve Stern, The secret history of gender. Women, men, and power in late Colonial Mexico, Chapel Hill & London, The University of North Carolina Press, 1995, 14-19. [ Links ]

    44 About the game of boules and other games of the time see the works of Eugenio Pereira Salas, Juegos y alegras coloniales en Chile, Santiago, Editorial Zig-Zag, 1947 and Oreste Plath, [ Links ]

    Origen y folclor de los juegos en Chile: ritos, mitos, tradiciones, Santiago, Grijalbo, 1998. [ Links ]

    46 Irene Meler, "La masculinidad. Diversidad y similitudes entre los grupos humanos", in Mabel Burin and Irene Meler, Varones. Gnero y subjetividad masculina, Buenos Aires, Paids, 2000, 76. [ Links ]

    47 For an analysis of masculinity in the popular sectors of the 19th century in Chile, see the works of Marcos Fernndez L., Prisin comn, imaginario social e identidad. Chile, 1870-1920, Santiago, Andrs Bello, DIBAM, 2003; [ Links ]

    "Perfiles masculinos al interior de la crcel rural: historias de reos y soldados en el penal de Rancagua durante el siglo XIX", Revista de Historia Social y de las Mentalidades, Santiago, N 3, 1999, 137-168; [ Links ]

    "Pobres, borrachos, violentos y libres: notas para la reconstruccin de identidades masculinas populares en el siglo XIX", in Jos Olavarra y Rodrigo Parrini (eds.), Masculinidad/es. Identidad, sexualidad y familia, Santiago, FLACSO-UAHC, 2000, 4758. [ Links ]

    The case of Argentina has been studied by Sandra Gayol, who connects masculinity to a popular honor linked to sexuality, physical force and reputation. See her book Sociabilidad en Buenos Aires, op. cit. It is worth noting the similarity of that construction of masculinity in the traditional world, independently of the geographical place. To observe these similarities in 17th century England, for example, see Elizabeth A. Foyster, Manhood in Early Modern England. Honour, Sex, and Marriage, London and New York, Longman, 1999. [ Links ]

    50 Mara Teresa Rojas, "Agresin de hombre, defensa de mujer: una aproximacin a la violencia conyugal y la justicia en el mundo popular. Zona central de Chile 1760-1830", Revista de Historia Social y de las Mentalidades, N 3, 1999, 89-116. [ Links ]

    56 About the persistente of the term "drunk", an insult in colonial times, see Mara Eugenia Albornoz, Violencias, gnero y representaciones: La injuria de palabra en Santiago de Chile (1672-1822), tesis indita de Magster en Gnero y Cultura, Santiago, Universidad de Chile, 2003, 43 y 45. [ Links ]

    William B. Taylor proposed to call insults "fight words", given their role prior to physical confrontation. He makes a distinction of types of insults according to the ethnic identities of those who pronounce them. See his work Drinking, Homicide, and Rebellion in Colonial Mexican Villages, Stanford, Stanford University Press, 1979, 73-83. [ Links ]

    For an analysis of insults – amply understood as words and gestures – and social colonial order, see Sonya Lipsett-Rivera, "Los insultos en la Nueva Espaa en el siglo XVIII", in Pilar Gonzalbo Aizpuru (dir.), Historia de la vida cotidiana en Mxico, Tomo III El Siglo XVIII: entre tradicin y cambio, Mxico, El Colegio de Mxico, F. C. E., 2005, 473-500. [ Links ]

    A historiography balance of the topic in the American colonial world, with new proposals, can be found in Cheryl English Martin, "Popular Speech and Social Order in Northern Mexico, 1650-1830", Comparative Studies in Society and History, Vol. 32, N 2, 1990, 305-324. [ Links ]

    58 About the tight relationships in traditional Chile, see Ren Salinas, "Espacio domstico, solidaridades y redes de sociabilidad aldeana en Chile tradicional, 1750-1880", Contribuciones Cientficas y Tecnolgicas, Santiago, N 118, 1998, 1-19. [ Links ]

    60 Marta Madero, Manos violentas, palabras vedadas: la injuria en Castilla y Len, siglos XIII XV, Madrid, Taurus, 1992, 13 (notions of the prologue by Jacques Le Goff). [ Links ]

    About the uses of corporal metaphors as expressions of the social order in the colonial American world, see the works by Alejandra Araya, "Aproximacin hacia una historia del cuerpo. Los vnculos de dependencia personal en la sociedad colonial: gestos, actitudes y smbolos entre elites y subordinados", in Monografas de Cuadernos de Historia N 1, op. cit., 81-91; "La pedagoga del cuerpo en la educacin Novo-Hispnica", Estudios Coloniales II, op. cit., 115-157; "Sirvientes contra amos: Las heridas en lo ntimo propio", in Rafael Sagredo and Cristin Gazmuri (directors), Historia de la vida privada en Chile, Tomo I: El Chile tradicional. De la Conquista a 1840, Santiago, Taurus, 2005, 161-197. [ Links ]

    61 The Sociology of Georg Simmel, translated, edited, and with an introduction by Kurt H. Wolff, The Free Press of Glencoe, Glencoe, 1950, 321. [ Links ]

    64 We tackle this in the paper "Cuando las afrentas se lavaban con sangre: honor y violencia popular en Chile colonial", III Seminario historiadores de Chile: Mario Gngora. [ Links ]

    65 A.N.R.A., Vol. 2537, Pza 3, Fj. 164vta. About social significances of bodily punishment, see Alejandra Araya, "El castigo fsico: el cuerpo como representacin de la persona, un captulo en la historia de la occidentalizacin de Amrica, siglos XVI-XVIII", Historia, N 39, Vol. 2, Santiago, 2006, 349-367. [ Links ]

    From the legal perspectiva, see the detailed work of Patricia Zambrana Moral, "Rasgos generales de la evolucin histrica de la tipologa de las penas corporales", Revista de Estudios Histrico-Jurdicos, Escuela de Derecho, Pontificia Universidad Catlica de Valparaso, XXVII, 2005, 197-229. [ Links ]

    For Mexico, see Gabriel Haslip-Viera, Crime and punishment in late colonial Mexico City, 1692-1810, Albuquerque, University of New Mexico Press, 1999, 101-131. [ Links ]

    70 Julian Pitt-Rivers, Antropologa del honor, op. cit.; J. G. Peristiany (ed.), El concepto de honor, op. cit.; J. K. Campbell, Honnour, Family and Patronage; [ Links ]

    Pierre Bourdieu, La dominacin masculina; [ Links ]

    Robert Nye A., Masculinity and male codes of honor in modern France, New York, Oxford University Press, 1993; [ Links ]

    Elizabeth A. Foyster, Manhood in Early Modern England. [ Links ]

    71 This is one of the aspects we are studying for our doctoral thesis and have already referred to it in the already mentioned paper "Cuando las afrentas se lavaban con sangre". About the acceptance in the community of men and women living together, without the sacrament of marriage, see the works by Eduardo Cavieres and Ren Salinas, particularly Amor, sexo y matrimonio en Chile tradicional, Valparaso, Universidad Catlica de Valparaso, 1991; [ Links ]

    Ren Salinas, "La transgresin delictiva de la moral matrimonial y sexual y su represin en Chile tradicional. 1700-1870", Contribuciones Cientficas y Tecnolgicas, Santiago, N 114, noviembre 1996, 1-23. [ Links ]

    75 "It is evident that the duel, as understood in classic Europe, places us in the confluence of concepts of different origin: blood vengeance and punishment of insult". Jean-Paul Roux, La sangre. Mitos, smbolos y realidades, Barcelona, Pennsula, 1990, 185. [ Links ]

    See also Mentalites. Histoire des Cultures et des Socits, N 1: Affaires de Sang, Paris, Imago, 1988. [ Links ]

    76 The Sociology of Georg Simmel, 321. [ Links ]

    77 V. G. Kiernan, El Duelo en la Historia de Europa. Honor y privilegio de la aristocracia, Madrid, Alianza, 1992, 162. [ Links ]

    78 Pierre Bourdieu, La distincin, 195-197. [ Links ]

    79 Bibliography about duels is ample. For Europe, only from the historiographic point of view, we can cite: Claude Chauchaudis, La loi du duel: le code du point d'honneur dans l'Espagne des XVI et XVII sicles, Toulousse, Presses Universitaires du Mirail, 1997; [ Links ]

    Robert Nye A., Masculinity and male codes, V. G. Kiernan, El Duelo en la Historia, op. cit. Also, considering only historiography, for America we can mention: Sandra Gayol, "Duelos, honores, leyes y derechos: Argentina, 1887-1923", en Anuario IEHS, Facultad de Ciencias Humanas, Universidad Nacional del Centro, Tandil-Argentina, N 14, 1999, 313-330; [ Links ]

    80 It is a perspective we are developing in an investigation about honor in the Chilean 18th century and that we have already presented in the mentioned paper "Cuando las afrentas se lavaban con sangre". For the anthropological perspective, see Pierre Bonte and Michael Izard (dir.), Diccionario de etnologa y antropologa, Madrid, Akal, 1996, 732-735; [ Links ]

    Joseph Ginat, Blood disputes among Bedouin and rural Arabs of Israel, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, University of Pittsburgh Press, 1987; [ Links ]

    Raymond Verdier (dir), La vengeance. Etudes d'ethnologie, d'histoire et de philosophie, Paris, Editions Cujas, 4 vols., 1980-1984. [ Links ]

    From the historiography point of view, see Pieter Spierenburg (ed.), Men and Violence. Gender, Honor and Rituals in Modern Europe and America, Ohio, Ohio State University Press, 1998. [ Links ]

    We specially stress the suggesting work of Thomas W. Gallant, "Honor, Masculinity, and Ritual Knife Fighting in Nineteenth-Century Greece", The American Historical Review, Vol. 105, N 2, 2000, 359-382. [ Links ]