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Article References

SAMPAIO, Evaldo. The argument of the knowledge creator in Nietzsche.Translated byPaulo Pimenta Marques. Kriterion [online]. 2007, vol.3Selected edition, pp. 0-0. ISSN 0100-512X.

    1 The formulation of the argument of the knowledge creator here presented follows Ivan Domingues in his Epistemologia das Ciências Humanas. Tomo I. São Paulo: Ed. Loyola, 2004, part I, chapter 1. [ Links ]

    2 One of these variants is presented by Bernardo Oliveira (Francis Bacon e a Fundamentação da Ciência como Tecnologia. Belo Horizonte: Ed. UFMG, 2002, chap. 9) [ Links ]

    3 The authorship of the Münchhausen trilemma, as well as a study of some of its main consequences, was attributed to Hans Albert (Tratado da razão prática. Rio de Janeiro: Tempo Brasileiro, 1976). [ Links ]

    However, it is known that the mentioned trilemma restores three arguments from those which form the pentalemma originally developed by Agrippa, quoted explicitly by Diogenes Laertius (Vida e Obra dos Filósofos Ilustres - Lives and Opinions of eminent philosophers, IX, 88-89) [ Links ]

    and by Sextus Empiricus (Hipotiposes Pirrônicas - Outlines of Pyrrhonism, I, 164-170) [ Links ]

    4 For an interpretation of some projects related to the tradition concerning Münchhausen's trilemma, see Eduardo Luft, "Fundamentação última é viável?". In: Cirne Lima & Custódio Almeida (Orgs.). Nós e o Absoluto. São Paulo / Fortaleza: Loyola / UFC, 2001, p. 79-97. [ Links ]

    6 Initially used in discussions on the idea of freedom as self-determination (a meaning that goes back to Aristotle, Plotinus and Arab neo-platonism), it seems that it is in modern onto-theological discussions that the idea of causa sui assumes, explicitly, the aspect of creation or self-creation that is immanent to it (Nicola Abbagnano, Dicionário de Filosofia. São Paulo: Martins Fontes, 1970). [ Links ]

    7 For Nietzsche, Schopenhauer would hold most responsibility for the introduction of the value of existence problem in modern philosophy. This problem would consist in the question of whether existence has any sense; this is a question that, one thinks, " [...] would require some centuries till it is simply heard in all its depth" (The Gay Science (GS) § 357). All the translations of Nietzsche's works used here – unless otherwise indicated – refer to the ones by Walter Kaufmann (The Portable Nietzsche. New York: Penguin Books, 1976; [ Links ]

    Basic Writings of Nietzsche.
    New York: Modern Library, 2000; [ Links ]

    The Gay Science.
    New York: Vintage Books, 1974). [ Links ]

    9 Human, All too Human (HH), § 13. Translated by R. J. Hollingdale. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996. [ Links ]

    11 Immanuel Kant. Critic of Pure Reason, B VIII-XII. [ Links ]

    12 A presentation and commentary on the terms "realism" and "anti-realism" in contemporary philosophy of language, critically opposing its original formulation by Michael Dummet, is carried out by Richard Rorty (Objetivismo, Relativismo  e Verdade. Rio de Janeiro: Relume-Dumará, p. 13-33). [ Links ]

    15 In my "Wittgenstein e o problema do significado" (In: Kleber Amora & Eduardo Chagas (Orgs.) Temas da Filosofia Contemporânea. Fortaleza: Edições UFC, 2004, p. 109-122), [ Links ]

    I argue that, in distinct ways, Wittgenstein, in Philosophical Investigations, dealing specifically with the problem of reference (bedeutung), arrives at a position that is analogous to the one that is here attributed to Nietzsche. If this is correct, it can be added to the arguments presented by Arthur Danto to justify that "Nietzsche, who is so naturally taken as a predecessor of the irrationalistic tendency in contemporary philosophy, in his own writings, exhibits attitudes toward the main problems of philosophy which are almost wholly in the spirit of Logical Positivism" (Cf. Nietzsche as Philosopher. New York: Columbia University Press, 1965, p.82-83). [ Links ]

    To be more polemical, I would add that Nietzsche not only precedes Logical Positivism and Analytical Philosophy, but also, and above all, surpasses them. As to the question of reference, I emphasize that this has been having a similar treatment by new tendencies in contemporary linguistics. As L. Mondada and D. Dubois tell us about reference: "Then, the problem is not any more to ask how information is transmitted or how the states of the world are represented accurately, but to ask how linguistic, cognitive, human activities are structured and give meaning to the world. In other words, we will talk about referentiation, treating it, as well as categorization, as derived from symbolic practices rather than from a given ontology. [...] referentiation does not concern 'a relation of representation of things or states of things, but a relation between text and the non-linguistic part of the practice in which it is produced and interpreted". (Cf. "Construção dos objetos do discurso e categorização: uma abordagem dos processos de referenciação". In: M. Cavalcante, B. Rodrigues & A. CIULLA (Orgs.). Referenciação. São Paulo: Contexto, 2003, p. 20). [ Links ]

    17 An example of this phenomenon can be found in H. Gleason Jr. Introdução à linguística descritiva. 2.ed. Lisboa: Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian, 1985, p. 4-5, [ Links ]

    18 Nietzsche, Philosopher, Psychologist, Antichrist, 4. ed. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1974, chap. 7-8. [ Links ]

    26 Passages like this one corroborate Richard Schacht's thesis that Nietzsche develops what could be called a "naturalistic epistemology" (Cf. Nietzsche.  London / Boston: Routledge, 1983, p. 52-57). [ Links ]

    27 As for the "problem of science", Roberto Machado evaluates that since "[Nietzsche], denies to science the possibility of elucidating its own problem by itself, denies to an internal criticism of knowledge the possibility of constituting itself as true criticism, the essential part of the démarche consists in connecting science with an exterior capable of revealing the real dimensions and purposes of the scientific project; it consists in explaining the moral foundations of science, indicating, at the same time, art as an alternative model for rationality. Hence the privilege of art and moral as instances that make the nietzschean discourse on science possible, indicating its two main directions". (Cf. Nietzsche e a Verdade. 2ª. ed. Rio de Janeiro: Graal, 2002, p. 8). [ Links ]