Ambiente & sociedade
On-line version ISSN 1809-4422
HANAZAKI, Natalia; CASTRO, Fabio de; OLIVEIRA, Vivian Gladys and PERONI, Nivaldo. Between the sea and the land: the livelihood of estuarine people in southeastern Brazil. Ambient. soc. [online]. 2007, vol.3Selected edition, pp. 0-0. ISSN 1809-4422.
The central focus of this study is to characterize and compare the livelihood strategies of two coastal communities from the estuarine region of Ribeira Valley (São Paulo State, Southeastern Brazil), analyzing the interplay among four economic activities: small-scale agriculture, fishing, tourism-related jobs, and extraction of non-timber vegetal resources. The local people of these communities are mostly Caiçara, the native inhabitants of southeastern Brazilian coast, in an Atlantic forest area. The miscegenation of Amerindians, European colonizers, and African Brazilians gave rise to the Caiçara people, whose subsistence was originally based on small-scale itinerant agriculture, small-scale fishery, and some extraction of forest products. Their livelihoods activities changed through time: agricultural practices were gradually abandoned, while fishing grew in importance. Recently, tourism-related jobs and the extraction of non-timber vegetal resources acquired a key role in the estuarine Caiçara livelihood. After an historical overview, we focus our analysis on the local factors and external pressures affecting the combination of these activities.
Keywords : Fisheries; Use of natural resources; Atlantic Forest; Conservation; Human ecology.